Abstract To perform a comprehensive content analysis of substance use in contemporary popular music. Design We analyzed the most popular songs of according to Billboard magazine. Two coders working independently used a standardized data collection instrument to code portrayals of substance use.
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Abstract Violence is not a single kind of activity, but rather a socially defined category of activities that share some common features.
This article presents a social perspective on violence that calls attention to the meanings of violence and to other social factors that promote and support or, alternatively, oppose and restrict violence.
Implications for prevention and intervention are examined. Electronic mail may be sent via Internet to blume oakland. Violence is a social phenomenon. For an action to be considered violent, it needs a victim or a group of victims.
"There is a common perception that drugs and rap music are inextricably linked, but that wasn't always the case," said Herd. "The fact that rap music didn't always have those drug references is compelling because it shows that this music didn't depend on that as an art form. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. The link between drugs and music explained by science January 25, by Ian Hamilton, Common painkiller linked to increased risk of major heart problems. Sep
The interpersonal nature of violence seems to call for explanations or understandings that also are interpersonal. Rather than look inside the perpetrator for the causes of violence, social perspectives look in the social situation for factors that may explain why violence is not universal but instead varies in frequency and intensity.
The social question is not, "Why does violence occur? Rather, this review is intended to help prevent violence by contributing to the understandings of the social influences contributing to violence.
Social Realities People's individual experiences become social as they are shared. Individuals can be in the same place or be exposed to the same events electronically, or they can use a symbolic means to communicate their experiences to others.
It is the combined experiences of many individuals, shared in these ways, that makes up a culture, a society, or a family. Within cultures, societies, and families, shared experiences are organized into categories of events referred to variously as concepts, constructs, and schemas.
The social construction of reality occurs naturally at an informal level. An older person is jostled by a group of young people, returns to his or her peers, and talks about how and where it occurred, about who was present and how the bystanders responded, and about the characteristics of the assailants, etc.
As such accounts are shared, a social group builds a model of common experience in which the personal experience becomes universal and members of the group see each other and their social world in similar ways.
It is not only the "victim" who participates in constructing such accounts; the "aggressor" as well relives the experience with others who see the event in similar ways e.
In many cases, the account works to justify further or increased violence Staub, In the formal process of theory-building, scholars also attempt to understand and to explain social phenomena.
Scholars are expected to recognize the limitations of their shared experience, rather than to generalize their conclusions to all people and all situations. Scholars are also expected to be careful and methodical about their ways of gathering and handling information.
Theorists may organize events sequentially, looking at the causal factors and consequences of violence, or they may organize events into abstractions—such as levels of violence or forces acting on individuals to create violence.
As opposed to popular accounts, formal theories are supposed to undergo a rigorous examination to determine their validity their faithfulness to the data and their usefulness.
Quite different theories may each be useful in different ways, and each may also be valid as it describes a part of the whole experience. Some social theorists have attempted to create "metatheories" that incorporate and reconcile a number of more limited, specific theories.
The social approach to violence includes both formal and informal understandings. What these understandings have in common is their emphasis on the common—rather than the individual—experience.
Because of this emphasis on shared experience in social groupings, social theories are most useful in suggesting ways in which behavior change can be accomplished by addressing social phenomena rather than by attempting to alter the individual.
In the past, some violent acts were integrated into society by either justifying the violent actions or by attributing the actions to individual psychopathology.
In the family environment, the violent male was seen as enforcing a natural rule that men should direct the activities of their wives and children.
Violence in a political context—war and revolution—was seen as the inevitable outcome when opposing rulers struggled over resources or when an oppressed people attempted to free themselves.
When the actions of an individual or a group of individuals were too hard to justify, societies protected themselves by judging the offender s to be different from other people. Over the years, such individuals were viewed as possessed by devils, suffering from brain fever, mentally retarded, or having missing out on emotional connections with other humans.
There are continuing debates about whether or not society has actually become more violent Warr, Popular accounts describe a changed world—one in which the idyllic community of the s has given way to a violent society characterized by drug wars, sexual assaults on children, robbery and killing on neighborhood streets, and violence in school corridors.
Some scholars challenge these accounts, suggesting that the peaceful community—if it ever existed—was not as prevalent in Western societies as in various tribal or indigenous societies Knauft, However, music is limited in its ability to produce anxiolysis, being dependent on the nature and rhythm of the music, e.g.
the Mozart Effect, and the associations generated by the listener. Binaural beats were first described by Oster [ 12 ] over 30 years ago. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Since popular culture and popular music are strongly linked, “The existence of the one is an audio manifestation of the other” (Cooper & Haney, , p.
xi). Inter-observer reliability was over eighty percent. 3. Results The percentage of love songs did not change signiﬁcantly over the three time periods Analysis of variance of. The link between drugs and music explained by science January 25, by Ian Hamilton, Common painkiller linked to increased risk of major heart problems.
Sep Kevin Sampson tracks the history of the link between drugs and music, from Miles Davis to Happy Mondays, and wonders if the link is still strong Music and drugs have long been linked, with.
This is a particularly important omission because popular music exposure is increasing among young people. 1 Finally, a more comprehensive and theoretically based content analysis may more completely capture relevant factors, such as the motivations, associations, and consequences associated with substance use in popular music.