History[ edit ] Feminism logo originating in The history of modern feminist movements can be divided into three waves. When first-wave feminism originated in the late nineteenth century, it arose as a movement among white, middle-class women in the global North who were reasonably able to access both resources and education. Thus, the first wave of feminism almost exclusively addressed the issues of these women who were relatively well off.
Most of this violence is intimate partner violence. Men are more likely to perpetrate violence if they have low education, a history of child maltreatment, exposure to domestic violence against their mothers, harmful use of alcohol, unequal gender norms including attitudes accepting of violence, and a sense of entitlement over women.
There is evidence that advocacy and empowerment counselling interventions, as well as home visitation are promising in preventing or reducing intimate partner violence against women. Situations of conflict, post conflict and displacement may exacerbate existing violence, such as by intimate partners, as well as and non-partner sexual violence, and may also lead to new forms of violence against women.
Introduction The United Nations defines violence against women as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.
It includes rape, defined as the physically forced or otherwise coerced penetration of the vulva or anus with a penis, other body part or object.
The prevalence estimates of intimate partner violence range from Intimate partner and sexual violence are mostly perpetrated by men against women. Risk factors Factors associated with intimate partner and sexual violence occur at individual, family, community and wider society levels.
Some are associated with being a perpetrator of violence, some are associated with experiencing violence and some are associated with both.
Risk factors for both intimate partner and sexual violence include: Factors specifically associated with intimate partner violence include: Factors specifically associated with sexual violence perpetration include: Gender inequality and norms on the acceptability of violence against women are a root cause of violence against women.
Health consequences Intimate partner physical, sexual and emotional and sexual violence cause serious short- and long-term physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health problems for women.
They also affect their children, and lead to high social and economic costs for women, their families and societies. Have fatal outcomes like homicide or suicide. Lead to unintended pregnancies, induced abortions, gynaecological problems, and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.
The analysis found that women who had been physically or sexually abused were 1. They are also twice as likely to have an abortion. Intimate partner violence in pregnancy also increases the likelihood of miscarriage, stillbirth, pre-term delivery and low birth weight babies. These forms of violence can lead to depression, post-traumatic stress and other anxiety disorders, sleep difficulties, eating disorders, and suicide attempts.
The analysis found that women who have experienced intimate partner violence were almost twice as likely to experience depression and problem drinking.
Health effects can also include headaches, back pain, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal disorders, limited mobility and poor overall health. Sexual violence, particularly during childhood, can lead to increased smoking, drug and alcohol misuse, and risky sexual behaviours in later life.
It is also associated with perpetration of violence for males and being a victim of violence for females.
Impact on children Children who grow up in families where there is violence may suffer a range of behavioural and emotional disturbances. These can also be associated with perpetrating or experiencing violence later in life.
Intimate partner violence has also been associated with higher rates of infant and child mortality and morbidity through, for example diarrhoeal disease or malnutrition.Get the latest news and analysis in the stock market today, including national and world stock market news, business news, financial news and more.
In this blog, Dr Gretchen Bauer focuses in on gender quotas in Africa, and asks what the impact of increasing women in parliament has been.
Gretchen is the Professor and Chair of Political Science and IR at the University of Delaware. The United Nations defines violence against women as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in.
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A Report submitted to the African Institute for Economic Development and Planning (IDEP), Dakar, Senegal, October In elucidating the relationship between culture, gender and development from the accurate picture of the experiences of Third World women especially on the issue of. Our findings suggest that transgender women are a very high burden population for HIV and are in urgent need of prevention, treatment, and care services.
The meta-analysis showed remarkable consistency and severity of the HIV disease burden among transgender women.