Automated essay evaluation

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Automated essay evaluation

Evolution[ edit ] Swimming pool cleaners evolved from two areas of science: The forerunner of today's pool cleaners were cistern cleaners. Often cisterns were and still are built to catch and store rainwater. The great palaces of antiquity had both lavish pools and cisterns.

They were prevalent in early America as well.

Automated essay evaluation

United States Patent and Trademark Office makes reference to a cistern cleaner patent filed though never issued as early as Before swimming pools were affordable and fashionable, many swam in their larger cisterns. In John E.

Pattison of New Orleans filed an application for a "Cistern and Tank Cleaner " and the first discovered patent was issued the following year. Over the next 20 years his invention was improved on numerous occasions. Many pool cleaner patents issued in the modern era refer to some of the cistern cleaners as predecessors of their invention.

Early models[ edit ] The first swimming pool cleaner was invented in by Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania local citizen John M. Everson of Chicago inwhich he entitled "Swimming Pool Cleaner". Pansini of Greenbrae, California, founder of the industry icon Jandy Corporation.

Patent Number 3, was touted by Pansini as "an automatic swimming pool cleaner", which is effective to remove the scum, dirt and other accumulations from both the bottom and side walls of a pool to disperse foreign matter in the, water for removal therefrom by normal pump-filter system of the pool.

Myers of Boca Raton, Florida inwho filed a patent. Henkin of Tarzana, California in His "Automatic Swimming Pool Cleaner, United States Patent Number 3, utilized three wheels to allow the machine "to travel underwater along a random path on the pool vessel surface for dislodging debris therefrom".

The design is probably familiar to pool owners as the Polaris Pool Cleaner. This is the least expensive and most popular type. It traces a random course. This type of cleaner is usually attached via a 1. The suction action of the pool's pump provides motive force to the machine to randomly traverse the floor and walls of the pool, extracting dirt and debris in its path.

The first automatic pool cleaner was a suction cleaner. They are powered solely by the main pump of the pool and utilize the pool's filter system to remove dirt and debris from the water.

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These machines effectively diminish the suction of the main pump - using them will increase the electricity costs and require the main pump and filter system to be serviced more frequently.

There is minimal maintenance and part replacement costs on these devices over time. This high-pressure water is used for locomotion and debris suction, employing the venturi effect. The requirement of a booster pump makes this type the highest in electricity use of the three types of pool cleaners.

The pressure causes turbulence in the water, distributing some debris on the floor and walls of the pool, some of which is re-floated to the pool surface and then sucked into the main filter through the skimmer inlets.

A portion of the dirt and debris is caught in an attached filter bag.Handbook of Automated Essay Evaluation: Current Applications and New Directions [Mark D. Shermis, Jill Burstein] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

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The page template for the new OWL site does not include contributors' names or the page's last edited date. An automated pool cleaner is a vacuum cleaner intended to collect debris and sediment from swimming pools with minimal human intervention.

Popularly dubbed a ''creepy-crawly'' or "Kreepy Krauly" in South Africa, it is one of several types of swimming pool vacuum cleaners.

Other major types are battery-powered or manually powered wands effective only for very small pools, kiddie or wading pools.

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