Introduction Biological theories within the field of criminology attempt to explain behaviors contrary to societal expectations through examination of individual characteristics. These theories are categorized within a paradigm called positivism also known as determinismwhich asserts that behaviors, including law-violating behaviors, are determined by factors largely beyond individual control. Positivist theories contrast with classical theories, which argue that people generally choose their behaviors in rational processes of logical decision making, and with critical theories, which critique lawmaking, social stratification, and the unequal distribution of power and wealth. Positivist theories are further classified on the basis of the types of external influences they identify as potentially determinative of individual behavior.
The human mind can hardly remain entirely free from bias, and decisive opinions are often formed before a thorough examination of a subject from all its aspects has been made.
This is said with reference to the prevailing double mistake a of limiting Theosophy to Buddhism: We theosophists of India are ourselves the real culprits, although, at the time, we did our best to correct the mistake. See Theosophist, June, This error must have crept in through inadvertence.
Sinnett was taught in America, even before Isis Unveiled was published, to two Europeans and to my colleague, Colonel H. Of the three teachers the latter gentleman has had, the first was a Hungarian Initiate, the second an Egyptian, the third a Hindu.
As permitted, Colonel Olcott has given out some of this teaching in various ways; if the other two have not, it has been simply because they were not allowed: But for others it has, and the appearance of Mr. It is above everything important to keep in mind that no theosophical book acquires the least additional value from pretended authority.
Unwise is the correct term to use in their case. For the Esoteric philosophy is alone calculated to withstand, in this age of crass and illogical materialism, the repeated attacks on all and everything man holds most dear and sacred, in his inner spiritual life.
The true philosopher, the student of the Esoteric Wisdom, entirely loses sight of personalities, dogmatic beliefs and special religions. Moreover, Esoteric philosophy reconciles all religions, strips every one of its outward, human garments, and shows the root of each to be identical with that of every other great religion.
It proves the necessity of an absolute Divine Principle in nature. It denies Deity no more than it does the Sun. Esoteric philosophy has never rejected God in Nature, nor Deity as the absolute and abstract Ens.
It only refuses to accept any of the gods of the so-called monotheistic religions, gods created by man in his own image and likeness, a blasphemous and sorry caricature of the Ever Unknowable.
Furthermore, the records we mean to place before the reader embrace the esoteric tenets of the whole world since the beginning of our humanity, and Buddhistic occultism occupies therein only its legitimate place, and no more.
Thus the reader is asked to bear in mind the very important difference between orthodox Buddhism—i. His Secret Doctrine, however, differed in no wise from that of the initiated Brahmins of his day. Unable to teach all that had been imparted to him—owing to his pledges—though he taught a philosophy built upon the ground-work of the true esoteric knowledge, the Buddha gave to the world only its outward material body and kept its soul for his Elect.
See also Volume II. That doctrine was preserved secretly—too secretly, perhaps—within the sanctuary. The mystery that shrouded its chief dogma and aspirations—Nirvana—has so tried and irritated the curiosity of those scholars who have studied it, that, unable to solve it logically and satisfactorily by untying the Gordian knot, they cut it through, by declaring that Nirvana meant absolute annihilation.
Toward the end of the first quarter of this century, a distinct class of literature appeared in the world, which became with every year more defined in its tendency.
Being based, soi-disant, on the scholarly researches of Sanskritists and Orientalists in general, it was held scientific.
Works, most remarkable for their ingenious deductions and speculations, in circulo vicioso, foregone conclusions generally changing places with premises as in the syllogisms of more than one Sanskrit and Pali scholar, appeared rapidly in succession, over-flooding the libraries with dissertations rather on phallic and sexual worship than on real symbology, and each contradicting the other.
This is the true reason, perhaps, why the outline of a few fundamental truths from the Secret Doctrine of the Archaic ages is now permitted to see the light, after long millenniums of the most profound silence and secrecy.
But, even the little that is now given is better than complete silence upon those vital truths. The world of to-day, in its mad career towards the unknown—which it is too ready to confound with the unknowable, whenever the problem eludes the grasp of the physicist—is rapidly progressing on the reverse, material plane of spirituality.
It has now become a vast arena—a true valley of discord and of eternal strife—a necropolis, wherein lie buried the highest and the most holy aspirations of our Spirit-Soul.
That soul becomes with every new generation more paralyzed and atrophied. One of the greatest, and, withal, the most serious objection to the correctness and reliability of the whole work will be the preliminary STANZAS: The main body of the Doctrines given is found scattered throughout hundreds and thousands of Sanskrit MSS.
Every scholar, therefore, has an opportunity of verifying the statements herein made, and of checking most of the quotations. A few new facts new to the profane Orientalist, only and passages quoted from the Commentaries will be found difficult to trace.
Several of the teachings, also, have hitherto been transmitted orally:Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good . The Philosophy of Social Science. The philosophy of social science can be described broadly as having two aims.
First, it seeks to produce a . Description of Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory - The various components of our conscious and subconscious the id, ego, and superego lives in all of us and affects what we do and think, according to Sigmund Freud.
Positivist theories contrast with classical theories, which argue that people generally choose their behaviors in rational processes of logical decision making, and with critical theories, which critique lawmaking, social stratification, and the unequal distribution of power and wealth.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast two competing psychological theories of human behaviour.
The two theories will be Erikson’s psychodynamic (stage 7, middle adulthood) and Rogers humanistic, concentrating on the adulthood years.
A ground breaking area in the theory of human nature for Adler was his understanding of INFERIORITY FEELINGS, COMPENSATION AND STRIVING FOR SUPERIORITY. Inferiority feelings and compensation originated with Adler's early studies of organ inferiority and compensation.