These years were marked by constant warfare, the absence of a Holy Roman Emperor, and the virtual disappearance of urban life.
Apartheid legislation NP leaders argued that South Africa did not comprise a single nation, but was made up of four distinct racial groups: Such groups were split into 13 nations or racial federations.
White people encompassed the English and Afrikaans language groups; the black populace was divided into ten such groups.
The state passed laws that paved the way for "grand apartheid", which was centred on separating races on a large scale, by compelling people to live in separate places defined by race.
This strategy was in part adopted from "left-over" British rule that separated different racial groups after they took control of the Boer republics in the Anglo-Boer war.
This created the black-only "townships" or "locations", where blacks were relocated to their own towns. In addition, "petty apartheid" laws were passed.
The principal apartheid laws were as follows. This Act put an end to diverse areas and determined where one lived according to race. Each race was allotted its own area, which was used in later years as a basis of forced removal. Under the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act ofmunicipal grounds could be reserved for a particular race, creating, among other things, separate beaches, buses, hospitals, schools and universities.
Signboards such as "whites only" applied to public areas, even including park benches. The Suppression of Communism Act of banned any party subscribing to Communism.
The act defined Communism and its aims so sweepingly that anyone who opposed government policy risked being labelled as a Communist. Since the law specifically stated that Communism aimed to disrupt racial harmony, it was frequently used to gag opposition to apartheid.
Disorderly gatherings were banned, as were certain organisations that were deemed threatening to the government. Education was segregated by the Bantu Education Actwhich crafted a separate system of education for black South African students and was designed to prepare black people for lives as a labouring class.
Existing universities were not permitted to enroll new black students. The Afrikaans Medium Decree of required the use of Afrikaans and English on an equal basis in high schools outside the homelands.
So-called "self—governing Bantu units" were proposed, which would have devolved administrative powers, with the promise later of autonomy and self-government. It also abolished the seats of white representatives of black South Africans and removed from the rolls the few blacks still qualified to vote.
The Bantu Investment Corporation Act of set up a mechanism to transfer capital to the homelands to create employment there. Legislation of allowed the government to stop industrial development in "white" cities and redirect such development to the "homelands".
It changed the status of blacks to citizens of one of the ten autonomous territories. The aim was to ensure a demographic majority of white people within South Africa by having all ten Bantustans achieve full independence.
Interracial contact in sport was frowned upon, but there were no segregatory sports laws. The government tightened pass laws compelling blacks to carry identity documents, to prevent the immigration of blacks from other countries.
To reside in a city, blacks had to be in employment there. Until women were for the most part excluded from these pass requirements, as attempts to introduce pass laws for women were met with fierce resistance.
The Senate Act was contested in the Supreme Court, but the recently enlarged Appeal Court, packed with government-supporting judges, upheld the act, and also the Act to remove Coloured voters. Since Asians had never been allowed to vote, this resulted in whites being the sole enfranchised group. A study in the Journal of Politics suggests that disenfranchisement in South Africa had a significant negative impact on basic service delivery to the disenfranchized.
Once South Africa became a republic, Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd called for improved relations and greater accord between people of British descent and the Afrikaners. The ethnic division would no longer be between Afrikaans and English speakers, but between blacks and whites.
Most Afrikaners supported the notion of unanimity of white people to ensure their safety. White voters of British descent were divided. Many had opposed a republic, leading to a majority "no" vote in Natal. Although Verwoerd tried to bond these different blocs, the subsequent voting illustrated only a minor swell of support,  indicating that a great many English speakers remained apathetic and that Verwoerd had not succeeded in uniting the white population.Find out more about the history of Apartheid, including videos, interesting articles, pictures, historical features and more.
Get all the facts on timberdesignmag.com The role of Background of the French and Indian War in the history of the United States of America. The History of Apartheid in South Africa. South Africa (see map) is a country blessed with an abundance of natural resources including fertile farmlands and unique mineral timberdesignmag.com African mines are world leaders in the production of diamonds and gold as well as strategic metals such as platinum.
Sep 03, · Watch video · The Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act of created 10 Bantu homelands known as Bantustans.
Sources “Homeland History & Heritage” Barbara Stevens and Homeland Board Minutes Wildflower Statue On the north end of the middle lake on Springlake Way is a small bronze which has been reproduced in print many times and has become the symbol of the Homeland community. Iroquois Location. The original homeland of the Iroquois was in upstate New York between the Adirondack Mountains and Niagara Falls.
Through conquest and migration, they gained control of most of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada.