This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Abstracts of scientific papers are sometimes poorly written, often lack important information, and occasionally convey a biased picture. This paper provides detailed suggestions, with examples, for writing the background, methods, results, and conclusions sections of a good abstract. The primary target of this paper is the young researcher; however, authors with all levels of experience may find useful ideas in the paper.
An abstract may act as a stand-alone entity instead of a full paper.
Most literature database search engines index only abstracts rather than providing the entire text of the paper. An abstract allows one to sift through copious numbers of papers for ones in which the researcher can have more confidence that they will be relevant to his or her research.
Once papers are chosen based on the abstract, they must be read carefully to be evaluated for relevance. It is generally agreed that one must not base reference citations on the abstract alone, but the content of an entire paper. According to the results of a study published in PLOS Medicinethe "exaggerated and inappropriate coverage of research findings in the news media" is ultimately related to inaccurately reporting or over-interpreting research results in many abstract conclusions.
An academic abstract typically outlines four elements relevant to the completed work: The research focus i. Abstract length varies by discipline and publisher requirements.
Typical length ranges from to words, but very rarely more than a page and occasionally just a few words. Abstracts are typically sectioned logically as an overview of what appears in the paper, with any of the following subheadings: In articles that follow the IMRAD pattern especially original researchbut sometimes other article typesstructured abstract style is the norm.
Abstracts that comprise one paragraph no explicit subheadings are often called unstructured abstracts by publishers. They are often appropriate for review articles that don't follow the IMRAD pattern within their bodies. Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical contact between them.
This behavior has long been surmised to explain how young dolphin calves keep up with their rapidly moving mothers. It has recently been observed that a significant number of calves become permanently separated from their mothers during chases by tuna vessels.
A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated inmechanisms causing the separation of mothers and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies.
These include two major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in an attractive force between mother and calf.
Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass.
Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Conclusions A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving adult school members.
This is an Open Access article: It is not intended to be as exhaustive a summary as the text abstract, rather it is supposed to indicate the type, scope, and technical coverage of the article at a glance.
The use of graphical abstracts has been generally well received by the scientific community. However, the validity of this assumption has not been thoroughly studied, and a recent study statistically comparing publications with or without graphical abstracts with regard to several output parameters reflecting visibility failed to demonstrate an effectiveness of graphical abstracts for attracting attention to scientific publications.Abstract.
Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. Students’ Personal Writing Style.
Writers of our essay writing service UK will easily write any kind of sample paper, formatting it to use at home from scratch on a variety of subjects, because experienced, talented specialists qualify for this job. Sample Dissertation / Thesis Example.
Below you can find samples of thesis/dissertation papers, as well as samples of single chapters and proposals completed by our writers. Practical Abstract Examples Getting into college is a huge achievement; still, it comes with some strings attached. In particular, students will have to write all sorts of new academic assignments, and follow some totally new formatting requirements.
Writing Science in Plain English (Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing) [Anne E. Greene] on timberdesignmag.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Scientific writing is often dry, wordy, and difficult to understand.
But, as Anne E. Greene shows in Writing Science in Plain English. The paper was finished earlier than assigned. Writers used very specific details from the given sources with a variety of vocabulary.
They used different types of sentences and transition words that make the essay flow smoothly and more interesting.